Interaction to Next Paint (INP)

Interaction to Next Paint (INP): Be prepared for the new Core Web Vitals metric

Published on at Technical SEO blog by .

Last modified on .

Stay ahead in SEO with the upcoming INP metric. Learn how Interaction to Next Paint impacts user experience and rankings, and improve your INP scores.

Introduction to Core Web Vitals evolution

Transition from First Input Delay to Interaction to Next Paint

INP Score graph from Search Console
Fix your score as soon as possible. Screenshot from Google Search Console.

With the ever-evolving landscape of web performance metrics, staying abreast of the latest Core Web Vitals is crucial for developers and website owners. It’s time to welcome Interaction to Next Paint (INP) as the new kid on the block. This transition from the established First Input Delay (FID) to Interaction to Next Paint is not just a minor tweak but a significant step in measuring user experience more comprehensively.

The significance of measuring INP

Understanding and measuring Interaction to Next Paint is fundamental for a simple reason: it provides a more accurate reflection of a user’s experience with your website’s interactivity. Unlike previous metrics, INP digs deeper, capturing the response times of a variety of interactive experiences, particularly those that matter most to your users—after the initial page load. By focusing on INP, you’re essentially ensuring that every aspect of your site is responsive, quick, and pleasing to your visitors, reinforcing the user-centered approach essential to modern web design.

Understanding Interaction to Next Paint (INP)

How does INP assess page interactivity?

Interaction to Next Paint (INP) gauges the responsiveness of a webpage by measuring the time it takes from when a user initiates an action—like clicking a button or hitting a key—to when the visual feedback is updated on the screen. INP isn’t just a one-off measurement; it samples all user interactions, providing a holistic view of the interactivity over the life of a page.

When you tap, click, or press a key, your action triggers an avalanche of behind-the-scenes processes. INP homes in on the longest delay in this chaotic symphony, giving developers insight into the slowest interactions that users might find frustrating. Capturing these critical moments, INP offers a vital metric for optimizing user experience across the web.


Distinguishing INP from other performance metrics

INP stands out from the crowd of web performance metrics by zeroing in on the interaction-related sluggishness that users might endure—the longer waits for feedback after they’ve engaged with your website. While metrics like Largest Contentful Paint (LCP) and Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS) focus on loading performance and visual stability, INP revolves around the response time after interactive gestures. It’s like comparing a sprinter’s speed (LCP, CLS) to their agility during an obstacle course (INP).

Here’s a quick comparison:

  • LCP gauges the time it takes for the most substantial piece of content to become visible during the page load.
  • CLS measures how often users experience unexpected layout shifts — a factor of visual stability.
  • INP, however, assesses the responsive nature of a page to user inputs throughout the page’s lifespan, not just during loading.

Understanding these distinctions helps clarify how each metric contributes to the mosaic of user experience and why INP is an essential piece of that puzzle.

Preparing for Core Web Vitals update

Timeline for INP integration into Core Web Vitals

It’s time to mark your calendars because by March 2024, exactly March 12, Google will officially integrate Interaction to Next Paint (INP) into the Core Web Vitals metrics suite, replacing First Input Delay (FID) in the process. This is a significant development for both web developers and website owners, as you have a clear timeline to understand, monitor, and improve your sites in anticipation of these changes. This change actually has been known for a couple of months, so there was ample time to resolve all issues related to this new metric.

In the lead-up to this integration, it’s recommended to familiarise yourself with the nuances of INP by tracking it and tweaking your sites accordingly. Preemptively optimising for INP can give you a competitive edge, ensuring your website remains user-friendly, responsive, and potentially more favourable in the realm of Google rankings.

On March 12, 2024, Google will officially roll out Interaction to Next Paint (INP) as part of the Core Web Vitals metrics.

Anticipating the impact on SEO and rankings

Given that Google is aligning its focus towards enhancing user experience, the incorporation of Interaction to Next Paint (INP) into Core Web Vitals will inherently impact SEO strategies and website rankings. Anticipate a period of recalibration as INP becomes a determining factor for page rankings on search results.

As INP zeroes in on interactivity, this shift emphasises the importance of responsive design and swift user feedback—qualities that will not only increase user satisfaction but also potentially improve organic search positions. By proactively optimising for INP, you’re not just preparing for a metric; you’re investing in the overall appeal and effectiveness of your site, satisfying both your visitors and search algorithms.

Optimising your site for INP

Strategies to improve INP scores

Optimising your INP score is essential for a smooth, user-friendly website experience. Here’s how you can enhance your INP scores:

  1. Optimise and reduce onClick events: Based on my personal experience, this was the primary factor causing a significant decrease of INP score. A higher number of events tracked in Google Tag Manager or Analytics can greatly reduce the score.
  2. Reduce JavaScript execution time: Pinpoint and streamline JavaScript code that slows interactions. Minimising and compressing your JS files will decrease load times.
  3. Optimise server response times: Reduce latency by enhancing server settings and backend performance. This can be achieved by better resource management and possibly upgrading your hosting solution.
  4. Minimise render-blocking resources: Identify resources like CSS and JavaScript that hinder rendering. Optimise delivery or use asynchronous loading to unblock the rendering path.
  5. Leverage browser caching: Modify cache headers to minimise repeat requests and harness browser caching for static resources, speeding up the overall interaction.
  6. Implement lazy loading and priority loading: Ensure the most critical content loads first and defer non-essential content. This not only improves INP but also enhances the perceived performance by the user.
Interaction to Next Paint (INP) values graph

By adopting these actionable strategies, you are more likely to score below the golden 200 ms INP threshold, leading to a user experience that may outshine competitors.

Tools and techniques for monitoring INP performance

When tackling INP optimization, selecting the right tools and techniques for monitoring performance is half the battle. Here are some resources to help you keep a keen eye on your INP values:

  1. PageSpeed Insights: This free tool provides a snapshot of your INP performance along with other vital metrics, offering both field and lab data for comprehensive analysis.
  2. Lighthouse: Though it predominantly measures lab data, Lighthouse can still shed light on potential issues that may affect INP, granting you the opportunity for preemptive optimisations.
  3. Chrome DevTools Performance Profiler: Dive deep into what’s happening during user interactions by recording CPU activity and identifying bottlenecks that could be inflating your INP score.
  4. DebugBear: This is likely the best tool when you require data from real users. The information gathered from real website visitors often differs from the laboratory data provided by Google tools.
INP map from DebugBear
INP may vary across different countries. Countries with slow internet often have poor scores. Screenshot from DebugBear.

Regular utilisation of these tools will not only serve your immediate monitoring needs but can also guide your long-term strategy and pinpoint necessary improvements before they impact user experience.

Challenges and considerations with INP

Common issues impacting INP values

Several key culprits could be compromising your Interaction to Next Paint (INP) values. Identifying and addressing these issues is crucial for enhancing your site’s interactivity. Here are some of the common problems:

  1. Inefficient event handlers: Poorly implemented event listeners can lead to unnecessary lags. It’s important to optimise these handlers for efficiency and ensure they’re not triggering heavy tasks that could delay painting.
  2. Heavy JavaScript execution: Extended or excessive JavaScript execution can significantly delay user interactions. This is often due to complex calculations or an overload of scripts running on a single page.
  3. Large DOM size: A bloated Document Object Model (DOM) can make it difficult for the browser to quickly respond to user inputs. Simplifying your page’s structure can have a noticeable impact on INP.
  4. Render-blocking resources: CSS and JavaScript that block the rendering path can prevent a page from quickly becoming interactive. Removing or optimising these resources is essential.
  5. Third-party code: Ads, analytics, and various widgets often contribute to page bloat and slow interactivity, as they consume CPU cycles and compete with your own scripts.
Our INP score at the beginning after release
Our INP score at the beginning after release. Screenshot from Google Search Console.

Addressing these issues involves a mix of good code practices, rigorous performance testing, and considering the impacts these elements have not only on page load but on every user interaction your site provides.

Addressing INP discrepancies in real user monitoring

When you’re monitoring real users to gather Interaction to Next Paint (INP) data, inconsistencies might pop up between your field data and your expectations. To address these discrepancies:

  1. Ensure comprehensive data collection: Verify that your Real User Monitoring (RUM) tools are appropriately set to capture a complete data set across various devices, networks, and user behaviours.
  2. Segment user data: Dive into specific cohorts to understand if particular user groups (like mobile users or certain geographic regions) are experiencing worse INP values, and target optimisations for those segments.
  3. Analyse anomalies: Investigate any outliers that seem to skew your data. This could be due to bots, poorly performing devices, or other anomalies that are not representative of your actual user base.
  4. Cross-reference lab data: While INP is best measured in the field, lab data can help diagnose issues under controlled conditions, thus offering clues to improve INP scores in the real world.

Alignment between real user experiences and aggregated data is crucial, and these steps can help bridge any gaps. By doing so, you not only improve the accuracy of your INP readings but also ensure that your website truly meets user expectations.


What constitutes a good INP score?

A good INP score is one that falls at or below 200 milliseconds. At this level, users typically perceive the webpage as responsive and fluid. If your INP is within this range, it indicates that your website is effectively providing quick feedback to user interactions, which is crucial for a positive user experience.

Are there recommended practices to enhance INP?

Yes, there are several recommended practices to enhance INP:

1. Monitor and minimise long tasks in JavaScript.
2. Optimise your web assets like images, CSS, and JavaScript.
3. Efficiently manage your content’s rendering path.
4. Delegate some processing to web workers if possible.
5. Regularly audit performance and apply the latest optimisation strategies.

Implement these practices and you’re on your way to achieving a stellar INP score.

Will INP completely replace FID in Core Web Vitals reports?

The Interaction to Next Paint (INP) metric will replace the First Input Delay (FID) metric as a key part of Core Web Vitals reports from March 12, 2024. This change marks a considerable shift in how we measure user experience online. It focuses on a wider and more thorough evaluation of page responsiveness. INP measures a page’s responsiveness during the entire user interaction, not just at the start. This provides a clearer picture of the user experience.

Our website uses cookies. By continuing we assume your permission to deploy cookies as detailed in our privacy policy.

Decline Accept